How a Terrible Battle helped to Change Europe
Ninety years ago on a sunny morning in Northern France, something happened that changed Britain and Europe for ever. At half past seven on the morning of July 1, 1916, whistles blew and thousands of British soldiers left their positions to attack their German enemies. By the end of the day, 20,000 of them were dead, and another 30,000 wounded or missing. The Battle of the Somme, __1__ it is called, lasted for six months1, When it ended, 125,000 British soldiers were dead. They had gained five kilometers of ground.
This was one of a series of great battles during the WWI. The attack on the Somme was staged to relieve __2__ on the French, who were engaged in a great battle of their own at a place called Verdun. By the time the battle ended, over a million French and German troops had been killed.
About 17 million people were killed in WWI. There have been wars with greater numbers of dead. But there has never been one __3__ most of the dead were concentrated in such a small area. On the Somme battlefield, two men died for every metre of space,
Local farmers working in the land still __4__ the bodies of those who died in that battle. The dead of all nations were buried in a series of giant graveyards along the line of the border __5__ France and Belgium. Relatives and descendants of those who died still visit these graveyards today. What the French call the “tourism of death” __6__ an important contribution to the local economy.
It took a second great conflict before Europe was to turn __7__ war itself. Twenty-eight years after the Somme battle, a liberating army of British. American and Canadian troops took back __8__ from another German invasion. More than 500,000 people were killed. New __9__ were built.
Two great conflicts across two generations helped to change the European mind about war. Germany, once the most warlike country in Europe, is now probably more in __10__ of peace than any other. One major cause of war in Europe was rivalry between France and Germany.The European Union was specifically formed to end that __11__.
According to US commentator William Pfaff, “Europeans are interested in a slow development of civilized and to1erant international relations，__12__ on problems while avoiding catastrophes along me way.They have themselves only recently __13__ from the catastrophes of the WWI and WWII，when tens of millions of people were destroyed. They don’t want __14__.”
The last British veteran of the somme battle died in 2005，aged 108.And the WWI is passing out of memory and into history2.But for anyone who wants to understand how Europeans __15__，it is still important to know a little about the terrible events of July 1，1916.
descendant n.子孙 graveyard n.墓地.
1.The battle of the Somme，as it is called，lasted for six months.索姆河战役，大家都这么叫，进行了六个月.
2.And the WWI is passing out of memory and into history.第一次世界大战正在从我们的记忆中消失，远离我们而去。
1. A)since B)because C)as D)for
2. A)oppression B)anxiety C)pressure D)resistance
3. A)which B)where C)why D)that
4. A)find B)look for C)seek D)look at
5. A)among B)on C)in D)between
6. A)makes B)brings C)gives D)adds
7. A)into B)to C)in D)against
8. A)America B)Britain. C)Canada D)France
9. A)monuments B) graveyards C)tablets D)gravestones
10. A)hatred B)suspicion C)favor D)fear
11. A)war B)rivalry C)battle D)revenge
12. A)compromising B)confronting C) attacking D)fighting
13. A)restored B)recovered C)rebuilt D)relaxed
14. A)much B)many C)more D)less
15. A)believe B)consider C)know D)think
1.分析文章主题：How怎样/多么 a Terrible(可怕的) Battle(战争) helped 结果to(帮助)Change(改变) Europe(欧洲)
2.文章主题词：terrible， battle, change, Europe，help
Ninety years ago(90年以前) on a sunny morning (在一个阳光灿烂的早晨)in Northern(北部的) France(法国), something happened(发生) that changed(改变) Britain (英国)and Europe(欧洲) for ever(永远).
At half past seven (在7点半)on the morning of (在...的早晨)July 1, 1916, whistles(哨声， 汽笛声) blew(吹，风吹) and thousands of (数千的)British(英国的) soldiers(士兵) left their positions(位置) 目的/去to attack(袭击， 攻击) their German(德国的) enemies(敌人).
By the end of (到...末)the day, 20,000 of them were dead(死了), and another(另外的， 另一个) 30,000 wounded(受伤) or missing(失踪的， 不见的).
1. A)since (既然，自从) B)because(因为)
C)as(因为，当...的时候， 虽然， 如同) D)for(因为)
The Battle (战争)of the Somme(索姆河), __1__ it is called, lasted for (持续)six months, when it ended(结束), 125,000 British soldiers(士兵) were dead.
They had gained(获得，增进)five kilometers of 同位结构ground(地面，场所， 范围). 五公里范围/曾经把战线向前推进了5公里。/与死亡的士兵数量进行比较。 尸体遍布5公里的范围
gain ground: 取得进步或进展
This was one of a series of (一连串的)great(伟大的， 重大的) battles(战争) during the WWI(第一次世界大战).
2. A)oppression(压迫，镇压) B)anxiety(焦虑，渴望)
C)pressure(压力) D)resistance(反抗， 抵抗)
The attack on (对...的袭击)the Somme was staged (被发起，舞台， 阶段， 发展的进程)to relieve(减轻，解除) __2__ on the French(法国人， 法国的), who were engaged in (参与， 从事于)a great battle of their own (他们自己的)at a place called Verdun.
2.C 空格后出现了介词on， 四个选项中能与介词on搭配的只有pressure(压力)， 因此C是答案。
By the time (到...为止)the battle ended(结束), over(超过， 在...之上 ，横跨) a million(百万) French and German(德国的) troops(军队) had been killed(被杀死).
About(大约) 17 million people were killed (被杀死)in WWI(第一次世界大战).
There have been (曾经有)wars with(有) greater numbers of dead(死者). 曾经也出现过死亡人数更多的战役，
3. A)which B)where C)why D)that 确认代词one 的含义
But 语义的强烈对比there has never been one __3__ most of the dead were concentrated in (被集中在)such(如此/adj.) a small area(区域).
3.B which：哪一个;where：在哪里;why：为什么;that：关系代词。先行词one等于one war。这儿讲的是“在索姆河战争中”死去了很多人，因此用where或in which。
On the Somme battlefield(战场), two men died(死) for(对于) every metre(米) of space(空间).
4. A)find(找到，发现) B)look for(寻找)
C)seek(寻找， 寻求)试图 D)look at(看， 考虑)
Local(当地的) farmers(农民) working in the land(田地) still(仍然) __4__ the bodies(尸体) of those who died(死亡) in that battle(战争).
4.A 选项B和C在“寻找”这个词义上词义接近， 因此彼此排除掉， 而seek的其它词义(试图)出现在空格处句意不通顺，因此排除C。 剩下的选项中A出现在空格中句意通顺。
5. A)among(在...之中) B)on(在...之上，靠近，在...时候， 关于) C)in (在...之中， 在...期间， 穿着) D)between(在...之间)
The dead(死去的人) of all nations(国家，民族) were buried in (被埋葬在...)a series of (一连串的) giant(巨大的) graveyards(墓地) along(沿着) the line(线) of the border(国界， 边界)__5__ France(法国) and Belgium(比利时).
Relatives(亲属) and descendants(子孙，后代) of those who died still visit(参观，访问) these graveyards(墓地) today.
6. A)makes (做，制造, 安排, 使成为) B)brings(带来， 引起)
C)gives(给， 授予，让步) D)adds(增加, 添加)
What的参拜 the French call the “tourism(游览， 观光) of death” __6__ an important(重要的) contribution to (对...的贡献)the local(当地的) economy(经济).
6.A to make contributions to：对...的贡献。这是个固定的词组。整个句子说的是：法国人所说的“死亡之旅”对当地的经济做出了重要的贡献。
7. A)into(进入) B)to(到，往，到...为止) 1：13：28
C)in(在...之内， 在...期间) D)against(反对， 相反， 靠着)
It took(体验， 进行)a second(另一个的，第二) great conflict(冲突) before(在...之前) Europe was to (将)turn __7__ war itself(它自己).
turn into v. (使)变成
turn to v. 转向, 求助于
turn in v.上缴, 把…交给警方
turn against v.反对
8. A)America B)Britain C)Canada D)France
Twenty-eight years after(在...之后) the Somme battle, a liberating(解放的) army of British, American and Canadian troops (军队) took back (收回)__8__ from another German invasion(入侵).
8.D America：美国;Britain：英国;Canada：加拿大;France：法国。法国在二战开始后不久就被德国占领，在二战的后期，盟军在诺曼底登陆，法国才得到解放。回答这道题可以借助些世界知识。其实，从上文a liberating army of Britain，America and Canadian troops(由英国、美国和加拿大部队组成的一支解放军)我们也可以推出合适的选择是France。
9. A)monuments(纪年碑) B) graveyards(墓地)
More than(多余， 超过) 500,000 people were killed. New __9__ were built(被建).
9.B monument：纪念碑;graveyard：墓地;tablet：石碑：gravestone：墓碑。又死了五十多万人，如何处置这些死去的人? 显然需要建新的墓地。所以选graveyards。
Two great conflicts(冲突) across(越过，在...的对面，跨越) two generations(一代人，产生) helped to (帮助)change the European mind about (改变了欧洲人关于...的看法)war.
10. A)hatred (憎恨) B)suspicion(怀疑)
C)favor(好感， 宠爱) D)fear(担心， 害怕)
Germany(德国), once(曾经， 一旦) the most warlike(最好战的) country in Europe, is now probably(可能) more in __10__ of peace(和平) than any other(其它任何国家).
10.C in favor of:支持。是固定的表达式。
in hatred of 憎恨
above suspicion 无可置疑
under suspicion 受到怀疑
with fear 因为害怕
One major(主要的) cause(造成，原因) of war in Europe was rivalry(竞争， 敌对) between France and Germany.
11. A)war B)rivalry(竞争， 敌对)
C)battle D)revenge(报仇， 复仇)
The European Union (欧洲联盟)was specifically(明确地，特定地)formed(成立，形成, 构成) to end that __11__.
12. A)compromising(妥协，折中) B)confronting(使面对)
C) attacking(攻击) D)fighting(打仗)
According to (根据)US commentator(评论员) William Pfaff, “Europeans are interested in(对...感兴趣)a slow development(发展，培养) of civilized(文明的) and to1erant(宽容的) international relations(国际关系)，__12__ on problems(问题) while(在...的时候) avoiding(避免) catastrophes(大灾难) along the way(在历史的进程中).
compromise on ...对...妥协
confront... with... 使...面临..., 使...面对...
fight for为...而战， 为...而争斗
fight against 对抗..., 同...争斗
13. A)restored (恢复健康，归还) B)recovered (恢复， 恢复健康， 取回)
C)rebuilt(重建) D)relaxed(使休息， 使松弛)
They have themselves only(仅仅) recently(最近) __13__ from the catastrophes(大灾难) of the WWI and WWII，when tens of millions of (几千万的)people were destroyed(被毁灭).
14. A)much B)many C)more D)less
They don’t want(想要，希望) __14__.”
The last(最后的， 最近的) British veteran(老兵) of the some battle died in 2005，aged(...岁的) 108.And the WWI is passing(终止，消失) out of memory (被遗忘)and into history.
15. A)believe(相信， 认为) B)consider(考虑，认为)
C)know (知道， 分辨) D)think(想，认为)
But for anyone who wants to understand(理解) how Europeans(欧洲人) __15__，it is still important(重要的) to know a little about(了解) the terrible(可怕的) events(事件) of July 1，1916.
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