SectionⅠ Use of English
Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B], [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)
Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is strong that people will 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3 .
In a series of experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin school of Business tested students’ willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 , each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.
Twenty-seven students were told with pens were electrified; another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. 7 left alone in the room. The students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew that would 8 . Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.
The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such 13 can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.
Unhealthycuriosity is possible to 15 , however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity,”Hsee says. In other words, don’t read online comments.
1.A.ignore B.protect C.discuss D.resolve
2.A.refuse B.seek C.wait D.regret
3.A.rise B.last C.hurt D.mislead
4.A.alert B.expose C.tie D.treat
5.A.trial B.message C.review D.concept
6.A.remove B.deliver C.weaken D.interrupt
7.A.Unless B.If C.When D.Though
8.A.change B.continue C.disappear D.happen
9.A.such as B.rather than C.regardless of D.owing to
10.A.disagree B.forgive C.discover D.forget
11.A.pay B.food C.marriage D.schooling
12.A.begin with B.rest on C.lead to D.learn from
13.A.inquiry B.withdrawal C.persistence D.diligence
14.A.self-deceptive B.self-reliant C.self-evident D.self-destructive
15.A.trace B.define C.replace D.resist
16.A.conceal B.overlook C.design D.predict
17.A.choose B.remember C.promise D.pretend
18.A.relief B.outcome C.plan D.duty
19.A.how B.why C.where D.whether
20.A.limitations B.investments C.consequences D.strategies
Section IIReading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A],[B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)
It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.
Mr. Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike Chain?
As Koziatek know, there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.
But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority. School in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype...that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,” he says.
On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated. More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rightfully so.
But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all—and the subtle devaluing of anything less—misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy needs.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens moredoors.Buteven now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.
In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs, but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.
Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call. When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts.
21.A broken bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of.
22.There exists the prejudice that vocational education is for kids who.
A.have a stereotyped mind
B.have no career motivation
C.are financially disadvantaged
D.are not academically successful
23.we can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates.
A.used to have more job opportunities
B.used to have big financial concerns
C.are entitled to more educational privileges
D.are reluctant to work in manufacturing
24.The headlong push into bachelors degrees for all.
A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs
B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs
C.indicates the overvaluing of higher education
D.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce
25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as.
While fossil fuels—coal，oil，gas—still generate roughly 85 percent of the world’s energy supply, it's clearer than ever that the future belongs to renewable sources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentum around the world：They now account for more than half of new power sources going on line.
Some growth stems from a commitment by governments and farsighted businesses to fund cleaner energy sources. But increasingly the story is about the plummetingprices of renewables，especially wind and solar.The cost of solar panels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close to one-third in the past eight years.
In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland，for example，wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes.While the rest of the world takes the lead，notably China and Europe，the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift.In March，for the first time，wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US，reported the US Energy Information Administration.
President Trump has underlined fossil fuels—especially coal—as the path to economic growth.In a recent speech in Iowa，he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source.But that message did not play well with many in Iowa，where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state’s electricity generation—and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.
The question“what happens when the wind doesn’t blow or the sun doesn’t shine?”has provided a quick put-down for skeptics.But a boost in the storage capacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.
The advance is driven in part by vehicle manufacturers，who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles.Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now,this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.
While there’s a long way to go，the trend lines for renewables are spiking.The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up—perhaps just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does—or doesn’t do—to promote alternative energy may mean less and less at a time of a global shift in thought.
26.The word“plummeting”（Line 3，Para.2）is closest in meaning to.
27.According to Paragraph 3，the use of renewable energy in America.
A.is progressing notably
B.is as extensive as in Europe
C.faces many challenges
D.has proved to be impractical
28.It can be learned that in Iowa, .
A.wind is a widely used energy source
B.wind energy has replaced fossil fuels
C.tech giants are investing in clean energy
D.there is a shortage of clean energy supply
29.Which ofthe following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?
A.Its application has boosted battery storage.
B.It is commonly used in car manufacturing.
C.Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.
D.Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult.
30.It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy.
A.will bring the US closer to other countries
B.will accelerate global environmental change
C.is not really encouraged by the US government
D.is not competitive enough with regard to its cost
The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing—Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for$13.5bn，but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service，which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’friendships and social lives．
Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities，but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through．Even without knowing what was in the messages，the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be．What political journalist，what party whip，would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currentlyplotting?It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops it owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.
Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power．But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power．But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them．The users of their services are not their customers．That would be the people who buy advertising from them—and Facebook and Google，the two virtual giants，dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies．
The product they’re selling is data，and we，the users，convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphidsfor the honeydew they produce when they feed, so Google farms us for the data that our digital lives yield．Ants keep predatory insects away from where their aphids feed; Gmail keeps the spammers out of our inboxes.It doesn’t feel like a human or democratic relationship，even if both sides benefit．
31.According to Paragraph 1, Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its.
32.Linking phone numbers to Facebook identities may.
A.worsen political disputes
B.mess up customer records
C.pose a risk to Facebook users
D.mislead the European commission
33.According to the author,competition law.
A.should serve the new market powers
B.may worsen the economic imbalance
C.should not provide just one legal solution
D.cannot keep pace with the changing market
34.Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook users because.
A.they are not defined as customers
B.they are not financially reliable
C.the services are generally digital
D.the services are paid for by advertisers
35.The ants analogy is used to illustrate.
A.a win-win business model between digital giants
B.a typical competition pattern among digital giants
C.the benefits provided for digital giants’customers
D.the relationship between digital giants and their users
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