Where there is financial connection, we see that rapid improvements in quality of life can quickly follow. In modern world, there are several important channels to achieving this greater financial connectivity. I want to highlight two today: increased capital mobility and increased financial inclusion.
First, enabling capital to flow more freely. Allowing capital to flow across borders can help support inclusive growth. Right now, foreign direct investment is only 1.9 percent of GDP in developing countries. Before the global financial crisis, it was at 2.5 percent. Making progress on major infrastructure needs will require capital flows to rise again and to be managed safely. Greater openness to capital flows can also bring down the cost of finance, improve the efficiency of the financial sector, and allow capital to support productive investments and new jobs.
Second, we also need increased financial inclusion. Challenges come with opening up capital markets. Thankfully, we know from experience the elements that are required for success. These include sound financial regulation, transparent rules for investment, and attention to fiscal sustainability. A few numbers: close to half of the adult population in low and middle-income Asia-Pacific economies do not have a bank account. Less than 10 percent have ever borrowed from a financial institution. And yet, we know that closing the finance gap is an “economic must-have” for nations to thrive in the 21st century. IMF analysis shows that if the least financially inclusive countries in Asia narrowed the finance gap to the level of Thailand, the poverty rate in those countries could be reduced by nearly 4 percent. How can we get there? In part, through policies that enable more women and rural citizens to access financial services. The financial gender gap for women in developing countries is about 9 percent and has remained largely unchanged since 2011.
There is no quick fix, but we know that Fintech can play a catalyzing role. In Cambodia, for example, strong public-private partnerships in supporting mobile finance has led to a tripling in the number of micro-financial institutions since 2011. These institutions have now provided loans to over 2 million new borrowers, representing nearly 20 percent of the adult population. Many of these citizens had never had a bank account. Now they can save for the future and perhaps even start a business of their own.
These are ideas that can work everywhere. But countries have to be willing to partner and learn from each other. The IMF and World Bank launched the Bali Fintech Agenda last October. The agenda lays out key principles-from developing financial markets to safeguarding financial integrity-that can help each nation as it strives for greater financial inclusion.
NASA is going to pretend a deadly asteroid is on its way, to practise for a real one. The “tabletop exercise” will allow the space agency and the other government organisations that will be tasked with responding to such an event to simulate their response, ahead of the possibility of a real example.
The scenario will see a very realistic but nonetheless fictional disaster, in which an asteroid will be headed for Earth. The scenario has been developed by one of the NASA organisations tasked with studying such near-earth objects, or NEOs.
It will bring together not just NASA but other international organisations to test out their response. Such exercises are used across the disaster response sector to ensure that the real responses are as fast and effective as possible.
“These exercises have really helped us in the planetary defense community to understand what our colleagues on the disaster management side need to know,” said Lindley Johnson, NASA’s Planetary Defense Officer. “This exercise will help us develop more effective communications with each other and with our governments.”
NASA and other organisations have spent more than 20 years scanning the skies for NEOs, looking for asteroids and comets that come within 30 million miles of Earth's orbit. Groups such as NASA's Planetary Defense Coordination Office (PDCO) as well as the European Space Agency's Space Situational Awareness-NEO Segment and the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) have been working to better communicate the danger that such objects pose to Earth.
There is no strict script in such an exercise. Instead, it will be used to test out how NEO observers, space agency officials, emergency managers, decision makers and citizens would respond to the threat of an impact.
Those taking part will discuss possible preparations: how they would explore the asteroid, work out the best ways of deflecting it and dealing with its impact effects.考生如果怕自己错过考试报名时间和考试时间的话，可以 免费预约短信提醒，届时会以短信的方式提醒大家报名和考试时间。
NASA has already participated in such exercises, working on some with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). Those exercises brought representatives from a variety of different federal agencies, including the departments of Defense and State.
Previous exercises showed that the focus of emergency management officials was not on scientific details. Instead, they just want to know when, where and how an asteroid will hit the Earth, as well as what sort of damage is done, according to FEMA.
NASA continues to work on that science, however, in an attempt to better improve humanity's ability to predict the exact location and effects of any impact.
“NASA and FEMA will continue to conduct periodic exercises with a continually widening community of US government agencies and international partners,” said Leviticus Lewis of the Response Operations Division for FEMA. “They are a great way for us to learn how to work together and meet each other's needs and the objectives laid out in the White House National NEO Preparedness Action Plan.”
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