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2018考研英语二真题及答案解析(网络版)

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【摘要】每年的全国研究生统一招生初试考试试题(简称:考研试题)在大家考研过程中的重要程度不言而喻,即使在考研备基础备考阶段也要以历年考研试题为根本,下面是考研小编整理发布的2018考研英语二真题及答案解析供考生参考。

相关链接:历年考研英语二真题及答案解析汇总

>>>【考研当前要事】成绩查询

2020考研初试已经结束了,本次考研成绩预计会在2020年2月10日左右陆续公布,小编为大家整理了全国各省份2020考研成绩查询时间及入口为避免错过成绩查询时间,考生可以 免费预约短信提醒服务,届时可提前收到成绩查询时间提醒短信,以下是2018考研英语二真题及答案解析:

2018年全国硕士研究生入学统一考试英语(二)试题

SectionⅠ Use of English

Directions:

Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A],[B], [C] or [D] on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

Why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful? Because humans have an inherent need to _1_ uncertainty, according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people will_2_ to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will_ 3 _.

In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested student’s willingness to _4 _themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one _5 _, each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist? Half of the pens would _6 _an electric shock when clicked.

Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified, another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified. _7_ left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would _8_. Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, _9_ the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

The drive to_10_ is deeply rooted in humans, much the same as the basic drives for _11_ or shelter, says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago, a co-author of the paper. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct—it can _12_ new scientific advances, for instance—but sometimes such _13_ can backfire. The insight that curiosity can drive you to do _14_ things is a profound one.

Unhealthy curiosity is possible to _15_ , however. In a final experiment, participants who were encouraged to _16_ how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to _17_ to see such an image. These results suggest that imagining the _18_ of following through on one’s curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. “Thinking about long-term _20_ is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity.” Hsee says. In other words, don’t read online comments.

1. [A] protect [B] resolve [C] discuss [D] ignore

2. [A]refuse [B]wait [C] regret [D] seek

3. [A] hurt [B]last [C] mislead [D] rise

4. [A]alert [B] tie [C] treat [D] expose

5. [A] message [B] review [C] trial [D]concept

6. [A]remove [B] weaken [C] interrupt [D] deliver

7. [A] When [B]If [C] Though [D] Unless

8. [A] continue [B] happen [C] disappear [D] change

9. [A] rather than [B] regardless of [C] such as [D]owing to

10. [A] discover [B]forgive [C] forget [D] disagree

11. [A]pay [B] marriage [C] schooling [D] food

12. [A] lead to [B]rest on [C] learn from [D] begin with

13. [A] withdrawal [B] persistence [C] inquiry [D]diligence

14. [A] self-reliant [B] self-deceptive [C] self-evident [D]self-destructive

15. [A] define [B] resist [C] replace [D] trace

16. [A] overlook [B] predict [C] design [D] conceal

17. [A] remember [B] promise [C] choose [D]pretend

18. [A]relief [B] plan [C] duty [D] outcome

19. [A] why [B] whether [C] where [D] how

20. [A] consequences [B]investments [C] strategies [D] limitations

1. 【答案】A

【解析】句首作者提出疑问,“为什么人们会读互联网的负面评论和明显很让人伤心的其它事情呢?”随后作者给出答案,“因为人们都有___不确定性的内在需求”。[A]解决[B]保护[C]讨论[D]忽视,根据动宾搭配关系,解决不确定性搭配合理。

2. 【答案】C

【解析】本题考查动介词搭配。根据原文语境,需要选择一个动词和后面的“to”连用。[A]拒绝做...[B]等待做...[C]寻求,力求做...[D]后悔做...结合文意“人们要___ 满足他们的好奇心”来判断,正选为[C]寻求,力求做。

3. 【答案】D

【解析】根据原文语境,“painful, uncertainty”均为消极词汇。

4. 【答案】C

【解析】固定搭配考查。根据原文语境,考查短语____ sb to sth 意为“让某人承受某事”。因此,C选项为正选。

5.【答案】 B

【解析】根据上文,第二段句首提到in a series of four experiments,说明是在“实验”的语境。结合四个选项,[A]信息[B]实验[C]复习[D]观念,只有B选项和段落语境相符合。因此为正选。

6.【答案】 C

【解析】动宾搭配。结合语境,“当点击的时候,一半的钢笔会____电流。”根据动宾搭配,本题需要一个动词来搭配电流,考查四个选项,[A]移除[B]削弱[C]传递[D]打扰 A选项更符合语境。

7.【答案】 D

【解析】时间状语的考查。结合语境,“___被独自留在房间,学生会....”,因此,这是一个非常明显的时间状语从句。正选为D.

8. 【答案】A

【解析】动词辨析。结合原文语境,由who 引导的定语从句修饰前面的学生,而在定语从句中,又出现由what引导的宾语从句。结合宾语从句的含义,“知道接下来会发生什么”更符合语境。

9. 【答案】B

【解析】结合语境,后面语境为并列关系,因此此题应填举例子。B为正选。

10. 【答案】D

【解析】Discover 与上文中的Curiosity 相对应。

11 .【答案】C

【解析】本词与后文的Basic drives 的详细说明。与shelter一样都属于人类的基本需求。

12 .【答案】D

【解析】破折号的内容是对前文instinct 的解释。说明这种本能能够促进新的科学发展,属于因果关系。

13. 【答案】B

【解析】跟前文的drives 相对应。

14. 【答案】A

【解析】本题与前文的backfire相对应,都属于贬义词。

15. 【答案】A

【解析】从后文的试验中,参与者应该被鼓励参与,因此跟前文的坚持相对应。

16. 【答案】A

【解析】通过后文的after能看出这个事情并没有发生,因此填预测。

17. 【答案】B

【解析】动宾搭配。

18.【答案】C

【解析】of 引导的后置定语。由一个人的好奇心所带来的结果。

19.【答案】A

【解析】whether 引导宾语从句。

20.【答案】D

【解析】关联对应,对应18题的outcome.

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

Part A

Directions:

Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

Text 1

It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

Mr.Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

As Koziatek knows,there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority.Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype..that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,”he says.

On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated.More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rigitfully so.

But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy neds.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens more doors.But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs,but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call.When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversiy of gifts.

21.【题干】A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.

A.mechanical memorization

B.academic training

C.practical ability

D.pioneering spirit

22.【题干】There existsthe prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.

A.are financially disadvantaged

B.are not academically successful

C.have a stereotyped mind

D.have no career motivation

23.【题干】We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.

A.are entitled to more “ducational privileges

B.are reluctant to work in manufacturing

C.used to have more job opportunities

D.used to have big financial concerns

24.【题干】The headlong push into bacheloi’s degrees for all_____.

A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

C.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

D.indicates the overvaluing of higher education

25.【题干】The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.

A.supportive

B.disappointed

C.tolerant

D.cautious

21. 【答案】C practical ability

【解析】这是一道细节题,根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是”什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢?学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字,但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策”。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点,即学生只学会书本上的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话,Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老师,在这所学校,学习不只是书本上的知识,或者是为了考试,也不是为了机械化的记忆,而是为了实际的技能。能看出,作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能,所以答案是C practical ability.

22. 【答案】 B are not academically successful

【解析】这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是“在很多职业化教育的学校中,有这样一种老套的思想,那就是,职业教育是针对那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根据这句话可确定答案就是B are not academically successful 。其他选项均不符合文意。

23.【答案】C used to have more job opportunities

【解析】这是一道细节推断题,根据题干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种the job security已经在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了,那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的,故选C,其他选项都不在定位处,可以排除。

24.【答案】D indicate the overvaluing of higher education

【解析】这是一道事实细节题,根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头But后,发现后面还有一个and...和其并列,所以主要关注对这两部分的评价,后面有明显的标点:冒号出现,冒号后说that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的否定,选项中只有D选项动词overvalue是负面词,而且提到主题词education。故选D。这道题最适合用感情色彩来排除与D相反的其他三个选项。

25.【答案】A supportive

【解析】这是一道态度题,放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了,说它是一个wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该是统一的形式,这样会overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以可以看出作者是支持的态度。

Text2

While fossil fuels- coal,oil,gas- still generate roughly 85 percent of the world's energy supply,it'sclearer than ever that the future belongs to renewablesources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentumaround the world: They now account for more than half ofnew power sourcesgoing on line.

Some growth stems from a commitment bygovernments and farsighted Businssesto fundcleanerenergy sources.But increasinglythestoryisabout theplummeting prices of renewables,especially wind and solar.The cost of solarpanels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close taone-third in the past eight years.

In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.

President Trump has underlined fossil fuels - especially coal - as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source, But that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state's electricity generation - and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

The question “what happens when the wind doesn't blow or the sun doesn'tshine?" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage apacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

The advance is driven in par by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now. this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

While there's a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up perhaps: just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does-or doesn't do- to promote alternative energy may mean less and less a time of a global shift in thought.

26.【题干】The word "plummeting"(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to ______

【选项】

A.stabilizing

B.changing

C.falling

D.rising

27. 【题干】According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America ______

【选项】

A. is progressing notably

B. is as extensive as in Europe

C. faces many challenges

D. has proved to be impractical

28. 【题干】It can be learned that in Iowa,______.

【选项】

A. wind is a widely used energy source

B. wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

C. tech giants are investing in clean energy

D. there is a shortage of clean energy supply

29. 【题干】Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?A. Its application has boosted battery storage.B. It is commonly used in car manufacturing.C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.D. Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult. 30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.

【选项】

A. will bring the US closer to other countries

B. will accelerate global environmental change

C. is not really encouraged by the US government

D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost

30.【题干】 It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.

【选项】

A. will bring the US closer to other countries

B. will accelerate global environmental change

C. is not really encouraged by the US government

D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost

26.【答案】 C falling

【解析】这是一道词义句意题,要想知道plummeting 的意思,首先要回到原文找线索,即plummeting所在的句子以及上下句,由原文可知,plummeting所在句子是在说现在例如风能和太阳能这样的可再生资源的价格的问题,plummeting是修饰可再生资源的价格的,接着二段最后一句就在用具体数字来证明可再生资源的成本在下降,如太阳能成本下降了百分之八十,风能也降到三分之一,由此可知,可再生资源的成本在下降,plummeting的含义是下降的意思。所以选择C falling。

27. 【答案】A is progressing notably

【解析】这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词定位至第三段第三句及第四句,意思是“在中国和欧洲等国家已经领先时,美国也在见证着巨大的改变。根据美国能源信息局报道,三月份,美国首次使用风能和太阳能产生了超过百分之十以上的能源。”这足以说明在美国,可再生能源的使用正在取得显著地进步。所以答案是A。

28. 【答案】 A wind is a widely used energy source

【解析】这是一道细节推断题,根据题干关键词定位至第四段第三句,在爱荷华州,风力涡轮机点缀着这个州并提供了此州百分之三十六的电能,并且还吸引了像微软这样的科技巨头公司。因此可判断,在爱荷华州,风能是一种广泛使用的能源。所以答案是A。

29.【答案】 C its continuous supply is becoming a reality

【解析】这是一道是非细节题,根据题干给出的段落位置,5-6两段和主题词clean energy,回到原文的第5-6段,这两段都不长,第五段出现了But后讲到电池容量的提升a boost in the storage,与A选项不符,并不是因果关系,故排除;B选项说道广泛用在制造业也不符合原文第六段第一句;而D选项和原文第六段最后一句是语义相反的,故也排除;正确选项C是和这句话语义一致的,也是和全文主题一致的,故为正确答案。

30.【答案】C is not really encouraged by the US government

【解析】这是一道细节推断题,题干问“根据最后一段可以推断出来可再生能源怎么了”,回到原文最后一段第一句就表明尽管还有很长一段路要走,可再生能源发展的趋势在增强。后面也提到改变的节奏在加快,对slowing气候变化有meaningful effect,所以可以看出B选项accelerate...是不对的,D选项中提到的价格不具有竞争力不在本段当中,也应排除。剩下的两个选项都提到了美国,就应该重点看最后一句,最后一句提到华盛顿政府做或不做什么都may mean less and less...所以可以看出美国不应该是和其他国家更近,排除A,所以选C,美国不是真正支持可再生能源的。

Text 3

The power and ambition of the giants of the digital economy is astonishing —Amazon has just announced the purchase of the upmarket grocery chain Whole Foods for $13.5bn, but two years ago Facebook paid even more than that to acquire the WhatsApp messaging service, which doesn’t have any physical product at all. What WhatsApp offered Facebook was an intricate and finely detailed web of its users’ friendships and social lives.

Facebook promised the European commission then that it would not link phone numbers to Facebook identities, but it broke the promise almost as soon as the deal went through. Even without knowing what was in the messages, the knowledge of who sent them and to whom was enormously revealing and still could be. What political journalist, what party whip, would not want to know the makeup of the WhatsApp groups in which Theresa May’s enemies are currently plotting? It may be that the value of Whole Foods to Amazon is not so much the 460 shops ft owns, but the records of which customers have purchased what.

Competition law appears to be the only way to address these imbalances of power. But it is clumsy. For one thing, it is very slow compared to the pace of change within the digital economy. By the time a problem has been addressed and remedied it may have vanished in the marketplace, to be replaced by new abuses of power. But there is a deeper conceptual problem, too. Competition law as presently interpreted deals with financial disadvantage to consumers and this is not obvious when the users of these services don’t pay for them. The users of their services are not their customers. That would be the people who buy advertising from them — and Facebook and Google, the two virtual giants, dominate digital advertising to the disadvantage of all other media and entertainment companies.

The product they’re selling is data, and we, the users, convert our lives to data for the benefit of the digital giants. Just as some ants farm the bugs called aphids for the honeydew they produce whe

31.【题干】According to Paragraph1,Facebook acquired WhatsApp for its 。

【选项】

A.digialproducts

B.userinformation

C.physical assets

D.quality service

32.【题干】Linking phone numbers to Faccbook identities may

【选项】

A.worsen political disputes

B.mess up customer records

C.pose a risk to Facebook users

D.mislead the European commission

33.【题干】According to the author,competition law

【选项】

A.should serve the new market powers

B.may worsen the economic imbalancens

C.should not provide just one legal solution

D.cannot keep pace with the changing market

34.【题干】Competition law as presently interpreted can hardly protect Facebook nsers

Because

【选项】

A.they are no defined as customers

B.they are not financially reliable

C.these rvices aregenerally digital

D.the services are paid for by advertisers

35.【题干】The ants analogy is used to llustrate

【选项】

A.a win-win business model between digital giants

B.a typical competition pattem among digital giants

C.the benefits provided for digital giants' customers

D.the relationship between digital giants and their users

1 2

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