American society is not nap( 午 睡 ) friendly. In fact, says David Dinges, a sleep specialist at the University of Pennsylvanian School of Medicine, "There's even a prohibition against admitting we need sleep." Nobody wants to be caught napping or found asleep at work. To quote a proverb: "Some sleep five hours, nature requires seven, laziness nine and wickedness eleven."
Wrong. The way not to fall asleep at work is to take naps when you need them. "We have to totally change our attitude toward napping," says Dr. William Dement of Stanford University, the godfather of sleep research.
Last year a national commission led by Dement identified an "American sleep debt" which one member said was as important as the national debt. The commission was concerned about the dangers of sleepiness: people causing industrial accidents or falling asleep while driving. This may be why we have a new sleep policy in the White House. According to recent reports, President Clinton is trying to take a half hour snooze(打瞌睡) every afternoon.
About 60% of American adults nap when given the opportunity. We seem to have "a mid afternoon
quiet phase" also called "a secondary sleep gate." Sleeping 15 minutes to 2 hours in the early afternoon can reduce stress and make us refreshed. Clearly, we were born to nap.
We Superstar of Snooze don't nap to replace lost shut eye or to prepare for a night shift. Rather, we "snack" on sleep, whenever, wherever and at whatever time we feel like it. I myself have napped in buses, cars, planes and boats; on floors and beds; and in libraries, offices and museums.
1. It is commonly accepted in American society that too much sleep is .
A. unreasonable B. criminal C. harmful D. costly
2. The research done by the Dement Commission shows that Americans .
A. don‘t like to naps
B. are terribly worried about their national debt
C. sleep less than is good for them
D. have caused many industrial and traffic accidents
3. The purpose of this article is to .
A. warn us of the wickedness of napping
B. explain the danger of sleepiness
C. discuss the side effects of napping
D. convince the reader of the necessity of napping
4. The "American sleep debt" (Line 1, Para.3) is the result of .
A. the traditional misconception the Americans have about sleep
B. the new sleep policy of Clinton Administration
C. the rapid development of American industry
D. the Americans‘ worry about the danger of sleepiness
5. The second sentence of the last paragraph tells us that it is .
A. preferable to have a sound sleep before a night shift
B. good practice to eat something light before we go to bed
C. essential to make up for lost sleep
D. natural to take a nap whenever we feel the need for it
Most people have had a dog or wanted one as their companion at some time in their lives. If you are thing of buying a dog, however, you should first decide what sort of companion you need and whether the dog is likely to be happy in the surroundings you can provide. Specialists' advice is useful to help you choose the most suitable kind of dog. But in part the decision depends on common sense. Different dogs were originally developed to perform specific tasks. So, if you want a dog to protect you or your
house, for example, you should choose the one that has the right size and characteristics. You must also be ready to devote a great deal of time to training the dog when it is young and give it the exercise it needs through out its life, unless you live in the countryside and can let it run freely. Dogs are demanding pets. Cats love the house and so are satisfactory with their place where it is secure, but a dog is loyal to its master and consequently wants him to show proof of his affection. The best time to buy a baby dog is when it is between 6 and 8 weeks old so that it can transfer its love from its mother to its master. If baby dogs have not established a relationship with the human being until they are over three months old, their strong relationship will always be with dogs. They are likely to be shy when they are brought out into the world to become good pets.
6. Which of the following is Not true according to the passage?
A. You can always get help from the specialists.
B. It is common sense that is the most important when choosing a dog.
C. You should decide what kind of dog you want.
D. Size and characteristics of the dogs should be considered too.
7. What is mentioned as a consideration in buying a dog?
A. The color of the dog.
B. The price of the dog.
C. Whether the dog will fit the environment.
D. Whether the dog will get along with the other pets in the house.
8. Why does the writer say a dog is a more demanding pet than a cat?
A. It must be trained so that it won't bite.
B. It demands more food and space.
C. It needs more love and care.
D. It must be looked after carefully.
9. Why is it advised to buy a baby dog under three months old?
A. It's easier to buy a baby dog under three months old.
B. They are less likely to be shy with human beings.
C. They are less likely to run away.
D. It's easier for them to form a relationship with their masters.
10. The word "affection" means .
A. love B. effect C. tie D. relationship