label 1. (n.) small piece of card or material attached to product to show name, price etc标签.
[同义词] tag, remark, brand
2. (v.) put a marker on a product贴标签
[例] The right products are all labeled with the capital letter “ R”.
lay-off/layoff 1. (n.) action of stopping a worker’s employment for a time, especially when there is little work to do临时解雇
[例] The large scale layoff of this area caused a workers’ strike.
2. (v.) dismiss temporarily临时解雇
lead time (n.) time needed to perform an activity产品从订货到交付之间的时间,考生如果怕自己错过考试报名时间和考试时间的话，可以 免费预约短信提醒，届时会以短信的方式提醒大家报名和考试时间。
[例] Actually we need a long lead time to perform it.
lease ] (n.) contract for renting property or equipment租约
[例] According to the bilateral agreement, the lease of this land will last 5 years.
leasehold (n.) property held by lease通过租契获得的财产
liabilities (n.) debts of a business负债
[例] The company cannot afford such large liabilities.
licence (n.) [US license] official document which gives permission执照
[例] You need an import licence.
[同义词] certificate, warrant, permit
license (v.) [US licence] give permission许可
licensee (n.) person who is given permission获许可的人
licensor (n.) person who gives permission许可人
life cycle (n.) concept of showing the different stages in a product’s life产品生命周期
[例] Usually, the mature stage is the most important in the life cycle of a product.
line [ lain ] (n.) 1. merchandise or services of a similar or related nature系列产品
[例] a complete line of small tools
[同义词] series, sequence
2.An ordered system of operations that allows a sequential manufacture or assembly of goods at all or various stages of production.流水生产线
[例] production line
liquidate (v.) close a company and sell its assets清算
liquidation (n.) process of closing a company清算
[例] The business went into liquidation.
liquidator (n.) person who supervises the liquidation of a company清算人
listed (adj.) registered列出的,上市的
[例] Shares can be bought in listed companies.
listed company (n) a company whose shares are recorded on the main market of a stock exchange 上市公司
[例] That firm is among the listed companies.
mass media (n) ways of spreading news and information to the greatest number of people , eg by television, radio or newspapers 大众传媒
[例] She got full financial aid to study in UBC , majoring in Mass Media.
mass production (n.) the manufacture of goods in large quantities, often using standardized designs and assembly-line techniques 大批量生产
[例] Mass production reduces unit cost substantially, reflecting the advantage of economy of scale.
Mass market 大众市场
middle management (n.) department managers中层管理者
senior management (n.) top managers高级经理
manager (n.) person who manages an organization or part of it经理
[同义词] administrator, executive, director
plant manager (n.) factory manager工厂经理
line manager (n.) manager who is in charge of accomplishing the basic goals of the organization生产经理
[例] All the sales performance will be reported to your line manager monthly.
margin (n.) difference between sale price and cost price利润
[例] Margin leaves the space for the dealers to pursue profits.
gross margin difference between manufacturing cost and sale price毛利
net margin difference between total cost (inc. overheads) and sale price净利
marketing mix (n.) combination of different marketing elements such as price, promotion, product, etc.销售组合
market penetration (n.) amount a product sells in a market畅销度
market segmentation (n.) division of the market into consumer groups市场分割
market share`(n.) percentage of a total market which one company or product holds市场占有率
up market (adj & adv.) luxury end of the market高端市场的
down market (adj & adv) cheep end of the market低端市场的
memo=memorandum (n.) a written record or communication, as in a business office 备忘录
[例] a memorandum about the meeting
minutes (n) an official record of the proceedings at a meeting 会议记录
[例] The secretary took the minutes of the meeting.
negotiation (n.) (often plural) act of bargaining磋商
[例] We are starting our annual pay negotiations next week.
notice (n.) 1. information about something that will happen通知
[例] The workers gave the management 24 hours’ notice of the strike.
2. information that a person will leave his employment (voluntarily or not)辞职通告
[例] I’ve heard that three more are going to give in their notice in May.
off-season (adj & adv) in the cheap, less busy season 淡季的
[例] The sweater is a real bargain for I bought it off-season.
opening (n.) job; vacancy职位空缺
[例] Is there any opening for the applicants?
operate (v.) run or work a machine/business运转
[例] The section head should make full function to operate daily production.
operating profits profits which result from day-to-day business营业利润
operative (n) worker工人
[例] She is a skilled operative.
option (n.) possibility, opportunity选择权，买卖特权
[例] We have the first option to buy the property.
[同义词] choice, alternative, selection
PA (n.)1. personal assistant 私人助理
2.personal account 个人账户
3.power of attorney 授权书;委托书
package (adj.) of a whole set整批的
[例] a package deal
[同义词] bundle, pack
benefit package 福利制度
packaging (n.) material used to wrap goods for display 包装材料
[例] It is necessary to improve the packaging.
packing (v.)包装 (n.) the way products are packaged包装(法)
[例] The packing of the candy is so trendy!
parent company (n.) company which owns more than 50% of the shares of another company母公司
[例] The parent company of the complex organization is located in the US.
part-time (adj.) working for only part of the working day兼职的
[例] Part-time employees now have to be nationally insured on exactly the same basis as full-time employees.
partnership (n.) business where two or more people share risks and profits合伙经营
[例] They are partnership so that they can share the risks and the profits.
patent (n.) official registration of a new invention专利
[例] This patent right is valid for 5 years.
peak (n.) highest point顶峰
[例] His business career has reached the peak.
[同义词] top, summit, pinnacle
pension (n.) amount of money paid regularly after a person stops work, either because of or age or illness养老金
[例] Is ￡140 per week, plus a pension, better than ￡200 per week without?
perform (v.) do well or badly表现
[例] Sometimes employees don’t perform at the required standard because they don’t know what the standard is.
performance appraisal (n.) procedure for evaluating a person’s work based on how well or badly they have done their work绩效评价
[例] At the end of each year, they all have performance appraisals.
performance-related pay (n) pay given to employee according to his or her real performance in the job与业绩挂钩的发薪法
[例] It is fair to adopt a system of performance-related pay which will undoubtedly motivate our men.
portfolio (n.) range, collection of investment投资组合
[例] a portfolio of shares
positioning (n.) creating an image for a product in a particular sector of a market(市场)定位
[例] How to set up an appropriate positioning for this new kind of product is crucial to the sales volume of the company.
probation (n.) period of testing a new employee试用(期);见习(期)
[例] The newly recruited employees are still in probation.
[同义词] trial, apprenticeship
promotion (n.) 1. act of giving someone a better job晋升
[例] He got a promotion for the high sales volume this month.
2. all means of communicating a message about a product or service促销
[例] The failure of the new product promotion lies in the business secrets release by someone.
qualification (n.) required education, ability or experience资格
[例] He plans to go back to college to get a management qualification.
[同义词] suitability, fitness, eligibility
quality (n.) the value/worth of a product/service 质量
[例] The efficiency just shows the inter-relationship between quality and quantity.
quality assurance (n.) all activities and functions concerned with achieving a high level of quality质量保证
quality control (QC)checking that the quality is high enough质量管理
[例] As a quality manager, you should guarantee the quality control.
quote 1. (v.)to state (a price) for securities, goods, or services.报价
[例] Could you quote for the contract in dollars?
quotation (n.) 1.estimate of cost 报价单2.listing of the price of on the Stock Exchange股票牌价
ask for a quotation 要求对方报价
rally (n) a notable rise in stock market prices and trading volume after a decline 价格骤然回升
[例] a rally in share
rate of return (n) the amount of profit ,dividend or interest received from an investment, expressed as a percentage of the original investment 收益率
[例] Your investment will absolutely receive a poor rate of return.
range (n.) series of products which the customer can choose from(产品)系列
[例] This type of shoes covers a wide range of color and size.
rebate (n) a deduction from an amount to be paid or a return of part of an amount given in payment 退款
[例] He is qualified for a tax rebate according to the new policy.
recession (n.) period of low economic activity不景气，衰退期
[例] There is usually an obvious increase in unemployment when business is in recession.
[同义词] depressed market
representative (n.) salesperson销售代表
retailer person who sells goods direct零售商
[反义词] wholesaler 批发商
ROI (return on investment)投资回报
risk capital (n.) money for investment in projects with a high risk but also with a potential for a high return风险资本
[例] The higher profits you can get from risk capital, the higher risk you might have.
segment (v.) divide a market into different parts分割市场
[例] segment markets into several parts
share (n.) 1. market share市场份额
[同义词] portion, part, division
2. small part of a company’s capital 股份
shareholder (n.) person who owns shares in a company股东
shift (n.) part of the working day in a factory班制
[例] You need to decide some time before next Monday if you want to work the early shift or the late shift.
To change shifts 换班制工作
shoot up 猛涨
[例] The demand of this medicine has shot up recently due to SARS.
shop floor (n.) place where goods are produced in a factory车间
shortlist 1. (n.) list of successful people who go through to the next stage of a selection process供最后选择的候选名单2. (v.) to select people to go through to the next stage选出最后候选人
[例] Here are the candidates whom we’ve shortlisted.
slogan (n.) a phrase which is used to sell a product口号, 标语
[例] They created an attractive slogan so that the book is expected to dominate the best-seller lists.
[同义词] logo slump [ slQmp ] (n.) rapid decrease暴跌
[例] a slump in sales
[同义词] depression, recession
spin-off (n.) by-product 副产品
[例] This material is a spin-off from space industry.
sponsor (n.) person or company which pays for an event (sports, culture etc.)赞助商
[例] Sponsor of the meeting will declare the final winner of this competition.
[同义词] patron sponsorship [`spCnsEFIp] (n.) act of sponsoring赞助
[例] That company took the sponsorship of the Shanghai Education Exhibition. stake [ steik ] (n.) a share or an interest in an enterprise, especially a financial share 股份
[例] I have a stake in that company.
stand (n.) table for display in an exhibition展台
[例] to set up a stand at a business exhibition in a foreign city
subordinate 1. (n.) person below another in the company hierarchy下属
[例] To get on well with your subordinate is not a very easy thing.
[同义词] inferior, junior, subaltern
2. (adj.) lower下属的
[例] subordinate position
[同义词] inferior, lesser, lower
subsidiary (n.) company which is at least 51% owned by a parent company子公司
[例] The multi-national company’s profits are mostly from its overseas subsidiaries.
[同义词] associate company，branch
supply 1. (n.) provision供给
[例] We are subject to the laws of supply and demand.
2. (v.) provide something供给
supplier (n.) person/company which supplies goods or services供应商
target customer the aimed customer 目标顾客
target market the aimed marked 目标市场
[例] Out target market next year is South America.
tariff (n.) tax or charge paid to enter a market关税
[例] tariff barriers tangible asset (n) assets that have material form 有形资产
[例] Next week we will assess the tangible assets of that company for the liquidation.
corporation tax tax on profits公司所得税
income tax tax on personal income 个人所得税
value added tax (VAT) tax on goods and services增值税
tender 1. (n.) offer for a contract at a certain price投标
[例] The purchaser invited tenders from 3 suppliers.
2. (v.) offer a price and conditions for a contract投标
tertiary industry service industry 第三产业
[例] Tertiary industry is the pillar industry for many industrialized nations.
turnover (n.) 1. total amount of sales营业额
[例] Our turnover in 1991 was 25% up on 1990.
2. speed at which staff or stock change周转,流通量
[例] Because of the poor management, there is a large turnover in this company.
unemployment (n.) state of being without a job失业
[例] In the time of financial crisis, the unemployment rate is surprisingly high.
unemployment benefit (n.) money paid by the state to people without jobs失业救济
vacancy (n.) job which needs to be filled (职位)空缺
[例] The vacancy needs a very competent and aptitude candidate.
venture (n.) risky business project风险,投机
[例] We need venture capital to start.
[同义词] adventure, speculation, hazard
voucher (n.) coupon 优惠券
[例] a gift voucher
volume business (n) trade in a large scale 大批量交易
[例] We only deal in volume business ,having no interest in such trading.
wage freeze (n.) decision by management not to increases wages工资冻结
[例] The decision of wage freeze this year annoyed the blue-collar workers.
warehouse (n.) building where goods are stored 仓库
withdrawal (n.) 1.act of taking away撤消
[例] The employee who feels underpaid is likely to show dissatisfaction by withdrawal from the job.
[例] withdrawal of assets
work in progress (WIP) ( n) 在制品
[例] He wrote this goods as WIP in the accounts
working conditions (n. pl) general physical state of the place where people work, including things like noise level, hazardous conditions, or heat 工作环境
[例] Workers are going on a strike because of bad working conditions.
write-off (n.) loss/cancellation of a bad debt注销 (v.) cancel/remove a debt from the accounts注销
[例] The debt has been written off.
yield (n.) usable output from a process产量，收益
[例] There has been a considerable increase in the yield of the mines.
zero defect (n.) manufactured product which meets the specified quality standard无事故, 无疵残
[例] They improved the technique and got zero defect this year.
zero inventory (n.) management philosophy and practice based on no waste and constant improvement of productivity零库存
[例] The leaders should instill zero inventory into their employees regularly.