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2020年翻译资格考试三级笔译考试试题(一)

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汉语句子翻译的多样性

例:你的眼睛长哪儿去了?

1)Haven’t you got eyes?

2)Are you so blind?

3)Are you such a blind man?

4)You're really stone-blind !

5)How blind you are !

6)As blind as a bat !

7)What a blind man !

8)A sightless guy !

9)Why are you so rash?

10)How can you be so reckless?

11)My goodness! Be careful!

12)Would you please be more careful?

这个例句实际上是汉语中很不礼貌的说法,指责对方没看清楚,不够小心。由于汉英两种语言有着不同的文化背景,各人对这个原文有不同的理解和体会,这个句子可能被用于不同的上下文,因此,这个句子自然会有多样性的译法。上面第一至第八个译文都是根据字面意思

来进行翻译的。这样的翻译可以保留原文的形象和原文中粗野的口气,为了塑造说话人的人物形象,这个句子就必须直译。上面第九至第十二个译文是根据原文的含义来进行翻译的, 这 4 种译文更符合地道的英语,在日常用语中,还是以这 4 种译法为好。

又如“你有笔吗?”可以译为: Have you got a pen? Have you got pens? Have you got any pens?

Have you got some pens? Have you got the pen? Have you got the pens?

准确的译文只能视具体语境而定。

只要一发现有可能反对他的人,他就本能地要用他的魅力和风趣将这个人争取过来。

(a) When he catches a glimpse of potential antagonist, his instinct is to win him over with charm and humor.

(b) As soon as he finds any possible opponent, he is, by instinct, to have as an inclination for winning him over with charm and humor.

(c) The sight of a potential antagonist arouses (evokes) his innate impulse for winning him over with charm and humor.

一想到要出国深造,他就激动不已。

(a)The idea that he would go abroad for further study made him greatly excited. (b)He felt greatly excited at the thought of going abroad for further study.

近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础。

(a) In recent years the national economies of China and Thailand have quickly developed, providing a good foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

(b) Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the national

economies in China and Thailand, which has prepared for good economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

(c) China and Thailand,with the rapid development of their national economies in recent years, have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation.

(d) The rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

总之,翻译中的多样性或多样性译法一方面可以使我们从多种译文中选择最佳的译文,另一方面可使原文中反复出现的词句拥有多种译法,从而使整个译文既忠实于原文,又行文流畅, 生动活泼。

另外,在翻译时,我们必须清楚这样一个事实:作为用一种语言传递另一种语言的思维内容的翻译,其表达手段可以是“多变的”,也就是说,一种思维内容可以用多种译语语言的形式表达。这就是同一种原文可以有多种表达形式的根据所在,译者往往选取不同的角度、不同的信息焦点作为出发点来对原文同一信息进行双语符号转换。因此,译界有“译学无定规” 之说。在句子翻译中,若用不同的译语表达形式传递同一原文信息,往往要使用不同的主语和谓语,若使用了不同的主语和谓语,整个句子的其它成分在安排上就会发生变化。例如:

(6) 一想到要出国深造,他就激动不已。When he thinks …., he

As soon as … he

(a) The idea that he would go abroad for further study made him greatly excited.

(b) He felt greatly excited at the thought of going abroad for further study. When the students saw the plane, they were very happy.

The sight of the plane made the student s happy.

析:原文的同一信息在译文中以两种形式译出,两种译文中的主语大不一样,同时,主语的确定决定了谓语的选择,主、谓语确定之后又影响和决定了其它句子成分的安排。译文(a) 是用“idea”作主语,按照一般的情况,idea 之后常用同位语从句,故“要出国深造”这一部分译作同位语从句并置于 idea 之后,主要谓语动词用“make”。主谓语搭配得当;译文(b) 用 he 作主语,主要谓语动词用“feel”。并与“excited’’构成系表结构,原文中的其它成分如“一想到要出国深造”在译文中则用介词短语“at the thought of going abroad for further study’’译出,并置于表语“excited”之后。原文的主干部分为“他就激动不已”,“一

想到要出国深造”表示原因。译文(a)符合英语中以物作主语的表达习惯;译文(1))突出了主要信息,以 at 引出的介词短语表示原因。

(7) 近年来,中、泰两国国民经济发展迅速,为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础。

(a) In recent years the national economies of China and Thailand have quickly developed, providing a good foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

(b) Recent years have witnessed the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand,which has prepared for good economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

(c) China and Thailand, with the rapid development of their national economies in recent years, have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation.

(d) The rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries.

析:四种译文分别以 economies, recent years,China and Thailand 和 development作主语,与它们一一对应的谓语则在选词、搭配、时态、单复数上有较大差异,但每种英译文的主语和谓语搭配得当,符合逻辑,这是翻译句子主干成分必须遵循的原则。主、谓语确定之后,其它句子成分的安排要以与主语、谓语搭配协调、传意恰当为条件。

译文(a)以 economies 作主语,谓语由 have quickly developed 充当,原文中的“为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础” 在译文中以现在分词短语 providing a good foundation…two countries 译出,在译文中作伴随状语。

译文(b)以 recent years 作主语,谓语以 have witnessed 来充当。英语中常常可以用表示时间、地点或物质概念的无生命的名词充当主语。这里主、谓语突出,且语言简洁明了。谓语是及物动词,后需接宾语,the rapid development of the national economies in China and Thailand 作宾语顺理成章。“为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础”的逻辑主语是 the rapid development…,故以非限定性定语从句译出,以 which 指代 the rapid development,逻辑关系清楚。

译文(c)以 China and Thailand 作主语,“近年来,(中、泰)两国国民经济发展迅速”以由with 引出的介词短语译出,置于谓语之前,作为下文中“为两国经济、贸易合作提供良好基础’’的前提, 谓语和宾语以及其它成分用 have laid a good foundation for their economic and trade cooperation 译出,主、谓、宾搭配得当,其它成分的位置正确。

译文(d)突出说明了中、泰两国近年来经济的迅速发展,故以“the rapid development of the national economies of China and Thailand in recent years”作主语,两国国民经济的发展为两国的经济、贸易合作提供了良好的基础,译文顺理成章,用“has laid a sound foundation for economic and trade cooperation between the two countries"译出。

由此可见,句子其它成分的位置往往要依据主语和谓语来作相应的调整。

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