A director of the advertising agency owned by tycoon Bob Jacoby once grumbled that he wasn't enjoying his work. Jacoby's reply was, 'I don't pay you good money to enjoy yourself. If you enjoy working here, you should be paying me money.' Jacoby's sentiments used to be common.(0)____ Happily, things have changed. Most organisations now undertake regular staff appraisals, at which employees have the opportunity to discuss one-to-one with their line manager their ambitions and hopes, their strengths and weaknesses, their achievements and their disasters. But it is worth remembering how new all this is, and why.
For a start, appraising isn't something many managers do naturally of their own accord. They often find appraisals difficult to handle and have to be made to carry them out. Appraisal systems have become widespread partly as a result of employment legislation, but more particularly because companies have learned that such assessments can work to their advantage. (8)......The company can improve its collective performance by helping employees to improve their individual performance.
Managers who use appraisals need to approach them very carefully. They should bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised when in junior positions, recalling which appraisals were helpful, which were not, and why. In most cases, their own bosses did their homework, checking out the job specification, the C.V. and any previous reports. (9).........As a result, a lot of time would have been wasted, debating exactly what had happened and when.
Being prepared and appreciating what it is like to be on the receiving end are, indeed, the keys to successful appraising. It is important to begin an appraisal by giving members of staff a chance to express their own views about their performance. (10) ......... Any information gained from colleagues is normally given in a positive spirit, since nowadays everyone understands appraisals and appreciates that they are carried out with good intentions.
The atmosphere in the appraisal should be one of positive and open discussion about how the employee is performing in the company.(11).........Some individuals will feel unjustly criticised when their boss makes comments on their performance. Others will respond fiercely to a critical assessment - although if they defend themselves passionately, that is no bad thing!
Finally, it is important to regard appraisals as part of a continuing process.(12)......... Instead, they should be followed up with friendly questions from time to time, making it clear to employees that new goals and strategies suggested in them are to be taken seriously and are to be acted upon.
If these pieces of advice are followed, it is hoped that both the employees and the company as a whole will benefit from the experience.
A However, managers must take great care in this respect.
B Only after that should managers put forward their own points, which are likely to include comments collected from others in the organisation.
C They should not be forgotten as soon as they are over.
D Like many other aspects of free enterprise, appraisals are an excellent example of underlying self-interest.
E Sometimes the appraiser goes too far the other way and fails to communicate problem areas and scope for improvement.
F If they relied on memory, they probably got things wrong.
G Employees were paid, and they obeyed; if they didn't like it, they could leave.
第八题。第二段讲了评价的好处，对整个公司是有利的。第八空前面说公司认识到这些评估是对他们自己有利的。第八空的后面说公司可以通过帮助员工改进个人表现来改进集体的表现。从前后文的信息看，这一题应该填入表示评估对公司有利的句子，没有转折。D选择符合：同自由企业的其他方面一样，评价是潜在私利的杰出例子。这里的underlying self-interest可以对应于前面的work to their advantage。
第九题。第三段是讲经理们要小心谨慎的使用评价。第九空前面说经理们要记住自己处于底层时被评价的经历(bear in mind their own experiences of being appraised)，通常情况下需要查看任职资格、简历和先前的其他报告。而第九空后面说的是这样会浪费时间，争论到底发生了什么，什么时候发生的。可以第九空的意思有一定得转折，选F：如果他们依赖于记忆，很有可能把事情弄错。Relied on memory正好与前面的checking out the job specification相对应;got things wrong对应于后面的a lot of time would have been wasted。
Job specification : a written statement about a job that includes a job description and the skills, experience and personal qualities that sb needs in order to do the job, used when an organization is looking for a new person for a job.
第十题，这一题的答案比较明显。前后文内容很一致，还有明显的连词。这一空的前面说在开始评估前给每个员工一个表达对自己表现看法的机会很重要。答案是B：只有在那之后经理们才能提出自己的观点，这个观点可能包括从组织中的其他人那收集的评论。After that很明显是承接上文的连词，put forward their own points可以对应于前面的express their own views，而comments collected from others 是对应于后文的any information gained from colleagues。
第十二题。这一段是讲的持续评估的重要性。选C：他们不能一结束就被遗忘。前面的a continuing process和后面的 should be followed up都是关键词。